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Represent genuine efforts to overcome the ineffectiveness and elitism of conventional schooling and science, and the negative effects of market forces and industry on the workplace, community life and sustainable livelihoods. These principles and the ongoing evolution of PAR have had a lasting legacy in fields ranging from buy action research paper problem solving in the workplace to community development and sustainable livelihoods, education, public health, feminist research and civic engagement. It is important to note that these contributions are subject to many tensions and debates on key issues such as the role of clinical psychology, critical social thinking and the pragmatic concerns of organizational learning in PAR theory and practice. Labels used to define each approach (PAR, critical PAR, action research, psychosociology, sociotechnical analysis, etc.) reflect these tensions and point to major differences that may outweigh the similarities.While a common denominator, the combination of participation, action and research reflects the fragile unity of traditions whose diverse ideological and organizational contexts kept them separate and largely ignorant of one another for several decades. 22 23 The following review focuses on traditions that incorporate the three pillars of PAR. Closely related approaches that overlap but do not bring the three components together are left out.Applied research, for instance, is not necessarily committed to participatory principles and may be initiated and controlled mostly by experts, with the implication that 'human subjects' are not invited to play a key role in science building and the framing of the research questions. As in mainstream science, this process "regards people as sources of information, as having bits of isolated knowledge, but they are neither expected nor apparently assumed able to analyze a given social reality". 15 PAR also differs from participatory inquiry or collaborative research, contributions to knowledge that may not involve direct engagement with transformative action and social history. PAR, in contrast, has evolved from the work of activists more concerned with empowering marginalized peoples than with generating academic knowledge for its own sake.Lastly, given its commitment to the research process, PAR overlaps but is not synonymous with Action learning, Action Reflection Learning (ARL participatory development and community development recognized forms of problem solving and capacity building that may be carried out with no immediate concern for research. 27 Organizational life edit Action research in the workplace took its initial inspiration from Lewin's work on organizational development (and Dewey 's emphasis on learning from experience). Lewin's seminal contribution involves a flexible, scientific approach to planned change that proceeds through a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of 'a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action towards an organizational 'climate' of democratic leadership and. 28 These steps inform Lewin's work with basic skill training groups, T-groups where community leaders and group facilitators use feedback, problem solving, role play and cognitive aids (lectures, handouts, film) to gain insights into themselves, others and groups with a view to 'unfreezing' and changing.

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Do not trust elitist versions of history and science which respond to dominant interests, but be receptive to counter-narratives and try to recapture them. Do not depend solely on your culture to interpret facts, but recover local values, traits, beliefs, and arts for action by and with the research organisations.Do not impose your own ponderous scientific style for communicating results, but diffuse write a research paper earth science and share what you have learned together with the people, in a manner that is wholly understandable and even literary and pleasant, for science should not be necessarily a mystery nor. However alternative traditions of PAR, begin with processes essay writing service cheating that include more bottom-up organising and popular education than were envisaged by Lewin. PAR strategies to democratize knowledge making and ground it in real community needs and learning clarification needed What are these strategies?

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This means that PAR is not a monolithic body of ideas and methods but rather a pluralistic orientation to knowledge making and social change. 4 5 6, contents, overview edit, pAR has multiple progenitors and resists definition. It is a broad tradition of collective self-experimentation backed up by evidential reasoning, fact-finding and learning.All formulations of PAR have in common the idea that research and action must be done 'with' people and not 'on' or 'for' people. It counters scientism by promoting the grounding of knowledge in human agency and social history (as in much of political economy). Inquiry based help me write my argumentative essay on PAR principles makes sense of the world through collective efforts to transform it, as opposed to simply observing and studying human behaviour and people's views about reality, in the hope that meaningful change will eventually emerge.PAR draws on a wide range of influences, both among those with professional training and those who draw on their life experience and those of their ancestors. Many draw on the work. Paulo Freire, 14 new thinking on adult education research, 15 the, civil Rights Movement, 16, south Asian social movements such as the Bhoomi Sena, 3 17 and key initiatives such as the Participatory Research Network created in 1978 and based in New Delhi. "It has benefited from an interdisciplinary development drawing its theoretical strength from adult education, sociology, political economy, community psychology, community development, feminist studies, critical psychology, organizational development and more".18, the Colombian sociologist Orlando Fals Borda and others organized the first explicitly PAR conference in Cartagena, Colombia in 1977. 19 Based on his research with peasant groups in rural Boyaca and with other underserved groups, Fals Borda called for the 'community action' component to be incorporated into the research plans of traditionally trained researchers. His recommendations to researchers committed to the struggle for justice and greater democracy in all spheres, including the business of science, are useful for all researchers and echo the teaching from many schools of research: "Do not monopolise your knowledge nor impose arrogantly your techniques.


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Participatory action research pAR ) is an approach to research in communities that emphasizes participation and action. It seeks to understand the world by trying to change it, collaboratively and following reflection.PAR emphasizes collective inquiry and experimentation grounded in experience and social history. Within a PAR process, "communities of inquiry and action evolve and address write focus group report questions and issues that are significant for those who participate as co-researchers". 1, pAR contrasts with many research methods, which emphasize disinterested researchers and reproducibility of findings.PAR practitioners make a concerted effort to integrate three basic aspects of their work: participation (life in society and democracy action (engagement with experience and history and research (soundness in thought and the growth of knowledge). 2 "Action unites, organically, with research" and collective processes of self-investigation. 3, the way each component is actually understood and the relative emphasis it receives varies nonetheless from one PAR theory and practice to another.

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