Orwell notes that writers of modern prose tend not to write in concrete terms but use a "pretentious latinized style" (compare Anglish ). He claims writers find it is easier to gum together long strings of words than to pick words specifically for their meaning, particularly in political writing, where Orwell notes that "orthodoxy. Seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style." Political speech and english essay writing for grade 6 writing are generally in defence of the indefensible and so lead to a euphemistic inflated style.Orwell criticises bad writing habits which spread by imitation. He argues that writers must think more clearly because thinking clearly "is a necessary first step toward political regeneration". He later emphasises that he was not "considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought." "Translation" of Ecclesiastes edit As a further example, Orwell "translates" Ecclesiastes 9:11: I returned and saw under. Into "modern English of the worst sort Objective consideration of contemporary phenomena compels the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account.Orwell points out that this "translation" contains many more syllables but gives no concrete illustrations, as the original did, nor does it contain any vivid, arresting, images or phrases. The headmaster's wife at St Cyprian's School, Mrs. Cicely Vaughan Wilkes (nicknamed "Flip taught English to Orwell and used the same method to illustrate good writing to her pupils.She would use simple passages from the King James Bible and then "translate" them into poor English to show the clarity and brilliance of the original. 2 Walter John Christie, who followed Orwell to Eton College, wrote that she preached the virtues of "simplicity, honesty, and avoidance of verbiage 3 and pointed out that the qualities Flip most prized were later to be seen in Orwell's writing. 4 Remedy of Six Rules edit Orwell said it was easy for his contemporaries to slip into bad writing of the sort he had described and that the temptation to use meaningless or hackneyed phrases was like a "packet of aspirins always at one's elbow". In particular, such phrases are always ready to form the writer's thoughts for him to save him the bother of thinking, or writing, clearly.
He argues that it is easier to think with poor English because the language is in decline, as the language declines, "foolish" thoughts become even easier, reinforcing the original cause: A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and. It homework help 4 u is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language.It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. Orwell discusses "pretentious diction" and "meaningless words". "Pretentious diction" is used to make biases look impartial and scientific, while "meaningless words" are used to stop the reader from seeing the point of the statement. According to Orwell: "In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning.".Five passages edit, orwell chooses 5 passages of text which "illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer." The samples are:. Harold Laski five negatives in 53 words Lancelot Hogben (mixed metaphors an essay on psychology in politics simply meaningless a communist pamphlet an accumulation of stale phrases and a reader's letter.Tribune (in which "words and meaning have parted company. From these, Orwell identifies a "catalogue of swindles and perversions" which he classifies as "dying metaphors "operators or verbal false limbs "pretentious diction" and "meaningless words". (see cliches, prolixity, peacock terms and weasel words ).
Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification. Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers. People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements. Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them.One of Orwell's points is: The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. The insincerity of the writer perpetuates the decline of the language as people (particularly politicians, Orwell later notes) attempt to disguise their intentions behind write term papers for cash euphemisms and convoluted phrasing. Orwell says that this decline is self-perpetuating.
Politics and the English Language " (1946) is an essay by, george Orwell that criticises the "ugly and inaccurate" written English of his time and examines the connection between political orthodoxies and the debasement of language. The essay focuses on political language, which, according to Orwell, "is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind." Orwell believed that the language used was necessarily vague or meaningless because it was intended. This unclear prose was a "contagion" which had spread to those who did not intend to hide the truth, and it concealed a writer's thoughts from himself and others.1, orwell encourages concreteness and clarity instead of vagueness, and individuality over political conformity. Contents, summary edit, orwell relates what he believes to be a close association between bad prose and oppressive ideology: In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible.Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging writing a college essay for admission and sheer cloudy vagueness.